Eur J Pain. 2018; 22: 1547-1564
Int J Drug Policy. 2017; 42: 30-35
A therapeutic role for cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists in major depressive disorders.
Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2005; 26: 609-617
The endocannabinoid system as a possible target to treat both the cognitive and emotional features of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Front Behav Neurosci. 2013; 7: 100
Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011; 36: 1219-1226
Cannabinoids: possible role in patho-physiology and therapy of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.
Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1998; 98: 502-506
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2014; 40: 23-30
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018; 186: 10-15
Cannabinoids for medical use: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
JAMA. 2015; 313: 2456-2473
A systematic review of the evidence for medical marijuana in psychiatric indications.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2016; 77: 1050-1064
The health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids: the current state of evidence and recommendations for research.
The National Academies Press,
Age of onset of mental disorders: a review of recent literature.
Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2007; 20: 359-364
Cannabis and cannabinoids for the treatment of people with chronic noncancer pain conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled and observational studies.
Pain. 2018; 159: 1932-1954
Evidence for cannabis and cannabinoids for epilepsy: a systematic review of controlled and observational evidence.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2018; 89: 741-753
The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials.
BMJ. 2011; 343d5928
In: Chapter 14. Completing “Summary of findings” tables and grading the certainty of the evidence. Draft version.
in: Higgins J Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Cochrane,
Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences.
New York, NY1988
In: Chapter 9. Analysing data and undertaking metaanalyses.
in: Higgins J Churchill R Chandler J Cumpston M Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Cochrane,
Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Neurology. 2007; 68: 515-521
Psychopathological and cognitive effects of therapeutic cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study.
Clin Neuropharmacol. 2009; 32: 41-47
Are oral cannabinoids safe and effective in refractory neuropathic pain?.
Eur J Pain. 2004; 8: 173-177
Patterns of marijuana use among psychiatry patients with depression and its impact on recovery.
J Affect Disord. 2017; 213: 168-171
The Cannabinoid Use in Progressive Inflammatory brain Disease (CUPID) trial: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group multicentre trial and economic evaluation of cannabinoids to slow progression in multiple sclerosis.
Health Technol Assess. 2015; 19: 1-187
A preliminary evaluation of the effcacy, safety, and costs associated with the treatment of chronic pain with medical marijuana in the elderly.
Consult Pharm. 2017; 32: 597
An open-label comparison of nabilone and gabapentin as adjuvant therapy or monotherapy in the management of neuropathic pain in patients with peripheral neuropathy.
Pain Pract. 2011; 11: 353-368
Treating depression with cannabinoids.
Cannabinoids. 2008; 3: 8-10
[The therapeutic use of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) in refractory neuropathic pain].
Presse Med. 2002; 31: 1840-1845
Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009; 34: 672-680
Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind study.
BMJ. 2008; 336: 199-201
Efficacy of cannabis flos in patients with fibromyalgia: a monocentric observational study.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016; 68: 72-74
Do patients use marijuana as an antidepressant?.
Depression. 1996; 4: 77-80
The treatment of spasticity with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury.
Spinal Cord. 2007; 45: 551-562
Open-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain.
J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2008; 22: 213-217
Mental health symptom severity in cannabis using and non-using Veterans with probable PTSD.
J Affect Disord. 2016; 190: 439-442
Impact of cannabis treatment on the quality of life, weight and clinical disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a pilot prospective study.
Digestion. 2012; 85: 1-8
Dronabinol increases pain threshold in patients with functional chest pain: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Dis Esophagus. 2017; 30: 1-8
Cannabis use in Spanish patients with multiple sclerosis: fulfilment of patients’ expectations?.
J Neurol Sci. 2008; 273: 103-107
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol shows antispastic and analgesic effects in a single case double-blind trial.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1990; 240: 1-4
A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled, pilot trial with Sativex in Huntington’s disease.
J Neurol. 2016; 263: 1390-1400
Influence of treatment of Tourette syndrome with delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) on neuropsychological performance.
Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001; 34: 19-24
Efficacy of dronabinol as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pain patients on opioid therapy.
J Pain. 2008; 9: 254-264
Preliminary observation with dronabinol in patients with intractable pruritus secondary to cholestatic liver disease.
Am J Gastroenterol. 2002; 97: 2117-2119
Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies.
Anaesthesia. 2004; 59: 440-452
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, enriched-design study of nabiximols* (Sativex®), as add-on therapy, in subjects with refractory spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis.
Eur J Neurol. 2011; 18: 1122-1131
Nabilone for the treatment of medication overuse headache: results of a preliminary double-blind, active-controlled, randomized trial.
J Headache Pain. 2012; 13: 677-684
Nabiximols for opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly-controlled chronic pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial.
J Pain. 2012; 13: 438-449
Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis.
Neurology. 2005; 65: 812-819
Treatment of chronic intractable neuropathic pain with dronabinol: case report of two adolescents.
Pain Res Manag. 2003; 8: 221-224
Medical cannabis use among patients with chronic pain in an interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation program: characterization and treatment outcomes.
J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017; 77: 95-100
An enriched-enrolment, randomized withdrawal, flexible-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel assignment efficacy study of nabilone as adjuvant in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain.
Pain. 2012; 153: 2073-2082
Effects on spasticity and neuropathic pain of an oral formulation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis.
Clin Ther. 2017; 40: 1467-1482
Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients.
Mult Scler. 2004; 10: 434-441
Cannabis for the Management of Pain: Assessment of Safety Study (COMPASS).
J Pain. 2015; 16: 1233-1242
Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial.
CMAJ. 2010; 182: E694-E701
Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta 9-THC) treatment in chronic central neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia patients: results of a multicenter survey.
Anesthesiol Res Pract. 2009; 2009827290
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind crossover trial.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010; 81: 1135-1140
A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain.
J Pain. 2008; 9: 506-521
Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial.
Lancet. 2003; 362: 1517-1526
Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2005; 76: 1664-1669
Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report.
J Psychopharmacol. 2011; 25: 121-130
Tetrahydrocannabinol does not reduce pain in patients with chronic abdominal pain in a phase 2 placebo-controlled study.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017; 15: 1079-1086.e4
Current status of cannabis treatment of multiple sclerosis with an illustrative case presentation of a patient with MS, complex vocal tics, paroxysmal dystonia, and marijuana dependence treated with dronabinol.
CNS Spectr. 2008; 13: 393-403
The efficacy and safety of nabilone (a synthetic cannabinoid) in the treatment of anxiety.
J Clin Pharmacol. 1981; 21: 377S-382S
Single-dose study of nabilone in anxious volunteers.
J Clin Pharmacol. 1981; 21: 383S-396S
Open label study of cannabidiol in Parkinson’s disease.
Mov Disord. 2017; 32: 913
Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective in the treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome: a 6-week randomized trial.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2003; 64: 459-465
Mitigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms by cannabis resin: a review of the clinical and neurobiological evidence.
Drug Test Anal. 2012; 4: 649-659
Effectiveness of cannabidiol oil for pediatric anxiety and insomnia as part of posttraumatic stress disorder: a case report.
Perm J. 2016; 20 ()
Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia.
J Pain. 2008; 9: 164-173
Medical cannabis for the treatment of Tourette syndrome: a descriptive analysis of 24 patients.
Mov Disord. 2017; 31: S309-S310
Oral delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010; 30: 190-192
Effective treatment of Tourette’s syndrome with marijuana.
J Psychopharmacol. 1993; 7: 389-391
Combined treatment of Tourette syndrome with Δ9-THC and dopamine receptor antagonists.
J Cannabis Ther. 2002; 2: 145-154
Cannabinoids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomised-controlled trial.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017; 27: 795-808
Use of a synthetic cannabinoid in a correctional population for posttraumatic stress disorder-related insomnia and nightmares, chronic pain, harm reduction, and other indications: a retrospective evaluation.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014; 34: 559-564
The use of a synthetic cannabinoid in the management of treatment-resistant nightmares in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
CNS Neurosci Ther. 2009; 15: 84-88
PTSD symptom reports of patients evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program.
J Psychoactive Drugs. 2014; 46: 73-77
The efficacy of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, in the treatment of PTSD-associated nightmares: a preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design study.
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015; 51: 585-588
Medical cannabis as treatment for chronic combat PTSD: promising results in an open pilot study. Patients Out of Time Conference; Tucson, Arizona.
Medicinal cannabis reduces agitation in acquired brain injury: case study.
J Neurotrauma. 2014; 33: A-80
Post-traumatic stress disorder and medical cannabis use: a naturalistic observational study.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012; 22: S363-S364
Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder.
Clin Drug Investig. 2014; 34: 587-591
Marijuana use is associated with worse outcomes in symptom severity and violent behavior in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2015; 76: 1174-1180
Effect of cannabidiol on symptoms, distress and neurophysiological abnormalities in clinical high-risk for psychosis patients: a placebo-controlled study.
Schizophr Bull. 2018; 44: S28
The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on cognition and symptoms in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia a randomized placebo controlled trial.
Psychopharmacology. 2018; 235: 1923-1932
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction.
Biol Psychiatry. 2005; 57: 594-608
Substance-abusing schizophrenics: do they self-medicate?.
Am J Addict. 2004; 13: 139-150
Performance of schizophrenic patients in the Stroop Color Word Test and electrodermal responsiveness after acute administration of cannabidiol (CBD).
Br J Psychiatry. 2010; 32: 56-61
Reasons for cannabis use in first-episode psychosis: does strength of endorsement change over 12 months?.
Eur Psychiatry. 2015; 30: 152-159
Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.
Transl Psychiatry. 2012; 2: e94
Relationship between cannabis and psychosis: reasons for use and associated clinical variables.
Psychiatry Res. 2015; 229: 70-74
Cannabidiol (CBD) as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
Am J Psychiatry. 2018; 175: 225-231
Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease.
J Psychopharmacol. 2009; 23: 979-983
Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
J Psychopharmacol. 2006; 20: 683-686
The health and social effects of nonmedical cannabis use.
World Health Organization,
Association of cannabis with long-term clinical symptoms in anxiety and mood disorders: a systematic review of prospective studies.
J Clin Psychiatry. 2018; 7917r11839
The environment and schizophrenia: the role of cannabis use.
Schizophr Bull. 2005; 31: 608-612
Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people.
BMJ. 2005; 330: 11
An experimental study of catechol-o-methyltransferase Val158Met moderation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced effects on psychosis and cognition.
Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006; 31: 2748-2757
Special topics in statistics.
in: Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions: Cochrane book series. Cochrane,
Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions.
John Wiley & Sons,